HIV / AIDS Timeline

Our timeline covers the early days of HIV / AIDS but will be updated to cover major current day events.

1979

The first recorded AIDS cases in the U.S. occurred in New York.

June 1981

Unusual immune system failure among gay men begins surfacing in the United States. These failures included diseases which were only found in people with suppressed immune systems. Five young men reported having Pneumocystis Carnii, a very rare form of pneumonia.

July 1981

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) report that Kaposis Sarcoma (KS), an uncommon form of cancer, has been found in 26 gay men from New York City and California. KS is usually found in older men. This, combined with the earlier reports of Pneumocystis Carnii, first led doctors to believe that a new immune-deficiency related disease was on the uprise. The disease was initially names GRID, for Gay-Related Immune Deficiency, because it was predominantly found among homosexuals. GRID appeared to be a lifestyle-associated illness, linked to excessive stress to the immune system. One hypothesis regarding the cause of the new disease placed the blame on amyl nitrate, or “poppers” which are used to heighten sexual pleasure. Researchers believed that GRID was caused by a highly infectious agent which depleted T cells, and could be transmitted through intercourse, blood, or blood products from mother to fetus.

July 1982

The disease is renamed AIDS, Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. It begins surfacing among hemophiliacs, who have received contaminated blood transfusions.

December 1982

The first documented case of AIDS caused by a transfusion. The government issues a warning that the blood supply may be contaminated.

January 1983

Heterosexuals are now considered to be an at-risk group. Two women become infected by their partners.

March 1983

In the United States, people who are considered to be in a high risk group for contracting HIV, including gay men and intravenous drug users, are asked to not donate blood.

May 1983

Luc Montagnier, a virologist at the Pasteur Institute in Paris, claims that he and his team have found a virus linked to AIDS. He names this virus LAV, or lymphadenopathy-associated virus. He published the first report on a T cell retrovirus found in a patient with swollen lymph nodes (lymphadenopathy). Lymphadenopathy is one of the first symptoms found in people progressing towards AIDS.

April 1984

Robert Gallo, Chief of Tumor Cell Biology of the U.S. National Cancer Institute, announces that his laboratory has isolated the virus that is believed to cause AIDS. In 1989 he was suspected of stealing the virus from Montagnier’s laboratory. The charge was later dropped.

September 1984

The first HIV infection is discovered in Thailand. There are an immense number of people with HIV in Thailand because of it’s huge prostitution industry.

January 1985

Luc Montagnier and Robert Gallo each publish the genetic sequence of the AIDS viruses they identified.

March 1985

The first test to detect HIV antibodies is approved in the United States. It is named the ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay). The test is immediately used to test the blood supply in the U.S.

April 1985

In Atlanta, the first International Conference on AIDS is held.

July 1985

Rock Hudson, an actor, admits to the public that he has AIDS.

1986

In West Africa, a second type of HIV, HIV-2, is discovered among prostitutes. The first confirmed case of HIV-2 in the United States was reported in late 1987.

October 1986

C. Everett Koop, U.S. Surgeon General, calls for public-health measures and sex education.

February 1987

Liberace dies of Pneumocystis carinii, a type of pneumonia which is triggered by AIDS.

March 1987

The first drug shown to fight the AIDS virus, Zidovudine (ZVD or AZT), is approved for use in the United States.

May 1987

President Ronald Reagan makes his first speech about the AIDS epidemic.

June 1987

The United States bans HIV-infected persons (immigrants and travelers) from entering the country.

October 1987

Several U.S. scientists begin tests of the first experimental AIDS vaccine on non-HIV infected volunteers.

October 1987

Randy Shilts publishes And the Band Played On, an acclaimed chronicle of the AIDS epidemic. He identifies one of the first people in North America infected with HIV. Gaetan Dugas, a Canadian airline steward, had as many as 2,500 sexual encounters.

June 1989

The FDA approves aerosolized pentamidine. This drug is used for the prevention of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia.

February 1990

Artist Keith Haring dies of AIDS. Haring’s artwork is widely used by non-profit organizations. Keith Haring Homepage

April 1990

Ryan White, a hemophiliac who fought to attend public school in Kokomo, Indiana, dies from AIDS.

June 1991

The CDC reports that 1 million Americans are infected with HIV.

October 1991

The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that nearly 10 million people are infected with HIV throughout the world.

November 1991

Magic Johnson announces that he is HIV positive. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approves a second anti-AIDS drug called ddI.

Nov 24, 1991

Freddie Mercury, member of the band Queen, dies of AIDS related bronchial pnumonia at age 45.

April 1992

Arthur Ashe, tennis player, sonfirms that he has AIDS. It is suspected that he contracted HIV during a heart-bypass operation.

April 22, 1992

The largest AIDS benifit ever, according to the Guiness Book of World Records, is held in memory of Freddie Mercury. The concert was bradcast live on television and radio to 76 countries around the world from the USA to Russia.

May 1992

Luc Montagnier and Robert Gallo agree that the virus they found came from Montagnier’s lab.

June 1992

ddC is approved by the FDA.

July 1992

About 30 cases of non-HIV infected people with AIDS-like symptoms are reported. By November, that number increases to 80.

July 1992

The first reports of combination drug therapies are published.

January 1993

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) begin to use a new definition of AIDS. This change in definition increases the number of cases by 111%. Many of these new cases were found in females.

February 6, 1993

Arthur Ashe, 49, world famous athelete, dies of AIDS-related pneumonia in New York. For more information about Ashe, visit his page on Wikipedia.

April 1993

The British/French Concorde 3-year trial of AZT shows no evidence that AZT delays the onset of AIDS.

May 1993

The Food and Drug Administration approves the use and sale of female condoms.

June 1993

Kristine Gebbie is appointed U.S. AIDS czar.

June 1994

The FDA approves d4T and 3TC.

November 1994

Patricia Fleming becomes the new U.S. AIDS czar after Kristine Gebbie resigns.

December 1994

Jocelyn Elders, Surgeon General for the U.S. , and an advocate for major AIDS education, is forced to resign.

January 1995

Scientists George Shaw and David Ho show that HIV replication is continuous from the time of infection.

February 1995

AIDS becomes the leading cause of death among all Americans aged 25-44.

February 1995

Olympic Diver Greg Lougainis, winner of four gold medals, reveals that he has AIDS.

December 1995

The FDA approves the first protease inhibitor, saquinavir. Its common name is Invirase.

February 1996

Boxer Tommy Morrison announces that he is HIV positive.

March 1996

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved two new protease inhibitors–ritonavir and indinavir–for the treatment of HIV infection in adults.

July 1996

Nevirapine is approved for use in the US. This is the first anti-HIV drug in the class called non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor.

July 1996

Researchers identify the virus responsible for Kaposi’s Sarcoma as a type of herpes.

July 1996

Reports of newly infected patients, who have been on heavy multidrug therapies, with undetectable viral loads, surface at the 11th International Confrence on AIDS.

December 1996

Time Magazine names AIDS researcher David Ho as Man of the Year.

December 1996

The United Nations’ estimates that the death toll has risen to 6.4 million. 22.6 million people are infected with HIV.

January 1997

The use of medical marijuana is endorsed in New England Journal of Medicine.

February 1997

New York hospitals begin testing all newborn infants for HIV. It includes mandatory disclosure of results.

February 1997

Dona Shalala endorses needle exchange programs, stating that they can be an effective component in the fight against HIV.

February 1997

A study by researchers at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases concludes that combination therapy treatments are more effective than two drug combinations.

March 1997

Act-Up Marks the 10th Anniversary of its original Stock Exchange Demonstration.

May 1997

President Bill Clinton publicly apologizes for the Tuskegee study. In that study, hundreds of African-American men were denied proper treatment for Syphilis.

May 1997

President Bill Clinton announces the creation of a vaccine research center within the National Institutes of Health.

June 1997

Johnson & Johnson removes its at-home HIV test from the market.

July 1997

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announce that the first probable case of HIV transmission through kissing.

September 1997

The CDC reports that the number of AIDS related deaths in the United States have dropped by 19%.

October 1997

Researchers from New York University conduct a major study to determine the effects of condom distribution in schools. The conclusion is that the distribution of condoms does not promote sex.

October 1997

The CDC urges all states to require reporting of HIV positive individuals. Up until this point, only 26 states required it.

December 1997

The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS celebrates the 10th annual World AIDS Day, “Children Living in a World with AIDS.”

September 1998

Dr. Jonathan Mann, head of the World Health Organization’s AIDS program when the disease exploded in the 1980s, dies in the crash of Swissair Flight 111.

December 1998

The FDA approves Ziagen, a nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor taken in combination with other anti-HIV medications.

February 1999

The FDA approves Panretinfor the topical treatment of cutaneous lesions in patients with AIDS-related Kaposi’s sarcoma.

February 1999

Larry Greene of Los Banos, California, is sentenced by United States District Judge Robert E. Coyle to 63 months imprisonment. He was involved in a scheme to defraud members of the public by marketing and selling unapproved and medically useless HIV test kits for home use.

April 1999

The Food and Drug Administration has granted accelerated approval to amprenavir, a new protease inhibitor. Amprenavir is approved for use in children age four and older and in adults in combination with other antiretrovirals for HIV infection.

May 1999

  • New in vitro studies show that HIV resistant to nelfinavir is less fit than virus resistant to other HIV protease inhibitors. These studies may explain clinical observations that patients failing first-line HAART regimens including nelfinavir are more likely than those failing other regimens to respond well to subsequent therapy if such failures are caught early.
  • A report from the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that, save for those who are extremely immunocompromised, all HIV-infected children and young adults should receive the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine.
  • The FDA approves the first home test kit for HCV, Home Access Health’s Hepatitis C Check, which will enable users to take their own blood sample and send it in anonymously to be tested.
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces that only 6500 people out of a possible 1 million have been notified that they may be at risk for infection with the hepatitis C virus.
  • In a study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, researchers Zhi-Qiang Zhang and Ashley Hasse, MD, report that HAART may regenerate the follicular dendritic cell network.
  • A report in Clinical Infectious Diseases suggests that discontinuing lamivudine in persons co-infected with HIV and hepatitis B may cause serious flares of hepatitis B.
  • AIDS becomes the world’s deadliest infectious disease in the last year, overtaking tuberculosis and moving up to fourth place among all causes of death worldwide, according to the World Health Organization.
  • An independent Data Safety Monitoring Board recommends ending the Phase III trial of HIV-1 immunogen because clinical differences were not observed between placebo and treatment groups and were unlikely to be observed in the near term.
  • New data indicate that adults over 50 are increasingly at risk for HIV infection. A study from the CDC suggests that older people are much less likely to have protected sex than younger people, primarily because they do not see themselves at risk.
  • A study at NIAID of patients stopping HAART has enrolled 18. Ten have gone without their drugs long enough to produce results; in all of them, the virus has rebounded.
  • The Clinton administration releases new guidelines to ease the availability of marijuana for medical research.
  • Researchers at the Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center report that HIV can be recovered from 8 patients whose viral load had remained unquantifiable from 2-3 years. They suggest it will take at least 7-10 years of HAART to eliminate the reservoir and they have doubts that it is possible.
  • Doctors at Yale University report patients using methadone and nevirapine can develop symptoms of methadone withdrawal unless their dose of methadone is increased.
  • In a review of different salvage regimens, Roy Gulick, MD, reports at the 2nd International Workshop on Salvage Therapy for HIV-1 Infection that viral suppression to fewer than 400 copies/mL was achieved in only 20-40% of patients, a sharp contrast to success rates of up to 90% for first-line therapy.

June 1999

  • A study published in Psychosomatic Medicine reports the probability of progressing to AIDS during a 5.5-year study period was 2 to 3 times higher for HIV-infected men with more than average stress or with less than average support than for those below the median on stress and above the median on social support.
  • A study in the Journal of Immunology suggests that some human major histocompatibility complex proteins may slow or hasten the speed at which HIV-1 progresses.
  • Abbott Laboratories announces a $335 million alliance with Triangle Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a North Carolina firm that will allow Abbott to market complete HIV regimens.
  • A report presented at the Third Annual National AIDS Malignancy Conference recommends the use of HAART along with chemotherapy when treating HIV-related non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma.
  • Veronica Miller, MD, from the JW Goethe Universitat, Frankfurt, presents results from a study of the effects of treatment interruptions in subjects with previous failure to multiple treatment regimens. The majority of patients’ HIV reverts to wild-type with a better virologic response upon re-administration of multidrug rescue therapies. The patients, however, lose substantial numbers of CD4 T cells in the process.
  • Investigators report in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism on evidence that a number of metabolic abnormalities found in HIV-positive women may be unrelated to the use of protease inhibitors. Hyperinsulinemia and truncal adiposity have been observed in HIV-infected women prior to initiation of protease inhibitor therapy.
  • British doctors report in The Lancet the case of an HIV-infected patient who died while receiving sildenafil, ritonavir and saquinavir. The patient had no history of nitrate drug use, hypertension, diabetes or family history of ischemic heart disease. However, he had a 30-year history of smoking and currently smoked 30 cigarettes per day.
  • Data from the Johns Hopkins HIV clinic show that 63% of patients taking their first protease inhibitor containing regimen fail to suppress their viral below 500 copies/mL at one year. The charts of 114 patients who had experienced virologic failure were reviewed. Among this group, 242 unique antiretroviral regimens were identified, and each patient had an average of 9.4 regimen events (defined as a new drug regimen or drug holiday lasting at least 2 weeks). Only 3 patients (2.6%) shared an identical sequence of events.
  • Patient selection and dosing begin in the Phase II clinical trial of pentafuside. The trial will assess the antiviral activity and long-term safety of pentafuside when used in combination with other antiretroviral drugs.
  • The in vitro data presented at the 3rd International Workshop on HIV Drug Resistance and Treatment Strategies suggest that tipranavir, the first in a new class of nonpeptidic protease inhibitors, is active against strains of HIV that are highly resistant to all 4 approved protease inhibitors.
  • ViroLogic, Inc. announces the commercial availability of PhenoSense, the company’s rapid phenotypic HIV drug resistance assay.
  • Visible Genetics Inc. announces the introduction of a new product known as TruPrep that makes genotyping possible for HIV-infected patients with viral load levels as low as 60 copies/mL.
  • Gilead Sciences submits a New Drug Application to the FDA for adefovir dipivoxil. The FDA informs Gilead Sciences that its planned trade name, Preveon, should not be adopted, as it is in conflict with another recently approved pharmaceutical product.

July 1999

  • During the 1st International Workshop on Adverse Drug Reactions and Lipodystrophy in HIV, Kees Brinkman, MD, proposes that lipodystrophy may be caused by mitochondrial dysfunction and that the mitochondrial toxicity of NRTIs might be an important factor in the pathogenesis of HAART-related lipodystrophy.
  • Trimeris Inc. and Hoffmann-LaRoche conclude an agreement for the full-scale clinical testing and development of Trimeris’s 2 novel anti-HIV fusion inhibitors, pentafuside and T-1249. Roche will market the compounds worldwide.
  • According to the NIH, a single dose of nevirapine taken orally by the mother while in labor, followed by a dose for the baby 3 days after birth, reduces the transmission rate by half compared to a similar short course of AZT.

August 1999

  • Scientists at Merck gear up to begin human clinical trials of 2 AIDS vaccines in healthy uninfected individuals by the end of the year.
  • Data from the Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group and from the Women and Infants Transmission Study provide compelling evidence that the maternal HIV viral load is the prime risk factor for vertical transmission.
  • The American Society of Anesthesiologists cautions people who use herbal medications to stop taking them before surgery.
  • A report in The Journal of the American Medical Association finds that cases of perinatal AIDS peaked in 1992, and declined 67% by 1997, including an 80% decline in HIV-infected infants and a 66% decline in HIV-infected children ages 1 to 5 years.
  • A report in Archives of Internal Medicine Online reveals that over 50% of the HIV-infected patients who started a drug regimen that included protease inhibitors in an academic clinical practice did not achieve durable suppression of viral replication.
  • French researchers report in The New England Journal of Medicine 10 cases of alopecia associated with indinavir therapy. Doctors at the University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center note that shorter treatment time for high-risk cervical cancer in HIV-infected patients is associated with better health outcomes.
  • The number of people dying from AIDS in the United States is still falling but much more slowly, according to the CDC. The decline in the AIDS mortality rate—the number of persons who die as a percentage of those who have the disease—was 20% in 1997-98 compared to 42% in 1996-97.

September 1999

  • The FDA approves stavudine and didanosine (Videx) for first-line treatment of people infected with HIV.
  • A UK team of investigators proposes that HIV-infected women who develop protease inhibitor-related lipodystrophy may also have a genetic predisposition to polycystic ovary syndrome.
  • French scientists report in AIDS the emergence of zidovudine-associated mutations and multidrug resistance mutations in antiretroviral naïve patients treated with the combination of stavudine and didanosine.
  • A report in The Journal of Infectious Diseases concludes that lamivudine is an effective treatment for HIV and hepatitis B virus in individuals co-infected with the viruses.
  • The FDA approves the use of stavudine and didanosine with protease inhibitors and the non-nucleoside analog efavirenz.
  • A preliminary report in Neurology shows that cerebral metabolite abnormalities, which have been linked to HIV dementia, may be reversed if HAART is started early.
  • Research reported in The Lancet suggests that using azithromycin as prophylaxis for Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) offers extra protection against PCP infection, in addition to standard PCP prophylaxis.
  • The US Department of Health and Human Services awards $3.9 million in planning grants in an effort to increase HIV/AIDS care to African-Americans and people in rural and underserved regions.
  • Researchers from the Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center report finding a 16.3% prevalence of HIV variants with known resistance-conferring genotypes to any antiretroviral drug in a group of newly infected patients from New York and Los Angeles.
  • Researchers from the University of California at San Diego report in The Journal of the American Medical Association an analysis of 141 patients finding 3 HIV-infected patients with a more than ten-fold resistance to one or more AIDS drugs. More than one quarter of the patients showed reduced susceptibility to at least one drug. The range of the reduction was from 2.5 to 10 fold. The patients, who were enrolled from 1989 to 1998, were located in San Diego, Los Angeles, Dallas, Denver and Boston.
  • Research from Spanish investigators suggests that individuals who are depressed and who have a perceived lack of social support have difficulty adhering to antiretroviral drug therapies for HIV infection.
  • Investigators from the US Naval Medical Center in San Diego report in the Annals of Internal Medicine that the flu vaccine is extremely effective in HIV-1-infected individuals.
  • Data presented at the 39th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (39th ICAAC) show that 42% of patients on the combination of zidovudine, lamivudine and amprenavir were below the level of quantification as compared to 3% of those receiving zidovudine, lamivudine and placebo. Those receiving amprenavir were more likely to experience nausea, vomiting and rash when compared to those receiving placebo.
  • Data presented at the 39th ICAAC compares 2 protease-free drug combinations containing stavudine and didanosine, with either lamivudine or nevirapine, to a combination of stavudine, didanosine, and indinavir. At 48 weeks, virologic and CD4 T cell responses were similar for the 3 arms. When the arms were compared using a viral load test with a 50 copies/mL cutoff, the lamivudine, stavudine and didanosine arm did not perform as well, nor did persons with the highest baseline viral loads do as well on the protease-sparing arms when measured by the more stringent 50 copies/mL cutoff.
  • Anthony Fauci, MD, reports that all the patients in the NIAID treatment interruption study had viral rebounds. The virus reappeared in 3 to 5 weeks for the majority of subjects. However, the virus was resuppressed by restarting HAART. Another study by Martin Markowitz, MD, of the Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center tested 4 recently infected patients who went off antiretrovirals after 3 years of therapy. The virus again reappeared in the patients after 14 to 26 days without treatment.

October 1999

  • Researchers, led by Peter Kim, PhD, from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, report in Cell that they have identified 8 molecules that could keep HIV from fusing and infecting normal cells.
  • A new 48-week study is announced at the National Conference on Women and HIV/AIDS that will compare differences between the sexes in HIV treatment.
  • A study published in AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses finds that HIV viremia can be reduced (but not completely suppressed) for an extended time with hydroxyurea (Hydrea) and didanosine.
  • A new study in AIDS indicates that adding ritonavir to indinavir in a twice-daily dosing regimen increases the pharmacokinetic profile of indinavir.
  • A retrospective study conducted by UK researchers finds that HAART delays the onset of Kaposi’s sarcoma treatment failure in patients with HIV.
  • A case of a patient taking ritonavir and saquinavir and a small dose of ecstasy was reported. The effect of the illicit drug lasted for an extended period of time. In addition, the patient experienced a near-fatal reaction to small amounts of GHB.
  • U.S. Bioscience halts clinical trials of the antiretroviral lodenosine because 1 patient died and others exhibited signs of potential liver or kidney damage.
  • A study in The Journal of Infectious Diseases finds evidence for simultaneous epidemics of HIV and human herpes virus 8 infection in the US during the early 1980s.
  • An estimated 4 million Americans are infected with the hepatitis C virus, with between 20% and 60% of the nation’s 2 million prisoners being infected.
  • An early access program to provide ABT-378/r to a limited number of patients outside of clinical trials begins.
  • The CDC announces it will provide supplemental support to 5 trial sites in VaxGen’s US Phase III trial of AIDSVAX. The CDC will contribute approximately $2 million annually to the selected sites over the next 4 years.
  • According to a new model reported in Nature Medicine, scientists propose that HIV replicates in multiple, hard-to-abolish, local bursts, whose size is very sensitive to relatively small changes in blocking efficiency. They emphasize that it is highly unlikely that HIV can be eradicated with current drugs.

November 1999

  • A panel convened by the FDA recommends that the full agency not give Gilead Sciences permission to market adefovir, a new AIDS therapy intended for use in patients with resistance to existing drugs. The panel cites safety concerns and adefovir’s modest antiviral effect.
  • Researchers from Thomas Jefferson University in Philadelphia report that they are able to detect residual viral RNA in the peripheral blood plasma of 22 patients with viral loads of less than 50 copies/mL, suggesting that viral replication is taking place at low levels in these patients.
  • Scientists at the National Eye Institute report that patients with stable cytomegalovirus retinitis who experience increases in CD4 T cell counts as a result of HAART may safely discontinue CMV treatment.
  • A study published in the Journal of Medical Virology suggests that rapid genotypic resistance to lamivudine occurs when the drug is given in combination with zidovudine to HIV-infected pregnant women.
  • The FDA approves once-daily dosing of didanosine.
  • James Sosman, MD, of the University of Wisconsin finds that protease inhibitors affect the endothelium, or the lining of the blood vessels, and may present a danger for heart disease.
  • Research by Ashley Haase, MD, and colleagues show that HIV enters resting cells within 3 days of infection.
  • Bristol-Myers Squibb sends a revised warning letter to health care providers that expands the number of patients at risk of fatal and nonfatal pancreatitis associated with didanosine.
  • The FDA approves twice-daily dosing of nelfinavir.
  • Four men between the ages of 35 and 44 have heart attacks after 2 years of HAART. Although no link has been proven, researchers fear that the life-extending anti-HIV drugs may cause cardiovascular disease.
  • The Whitman-Walker Clinic and Shiloh Baptist Church Family Life Center Foundation host a 3-day conference on HIV/AIDS and the African-American community.
  • Barbara McGovern, MD, of the Tufts University School of Medicine, finds that HIV-infected patients taking HAART are at risk for liver disease because of the drugs’ potential toxicity.
  • At a meeting in Philadelphia of the Infectious Disease Society of America, researchers from Massachusetts General Hospital report preliminary findings from 2 patients who were on “structured interrupted therapy.” The scientists note that while HIV came back each time the drugs were halted, there were signs the patients’ immune systems were fighting to control the virus, with growing success.
  • Calypte Biomedical Corp.’s “Day Assay” license for its HIV blot assay is approved by the FDA. The assay shows the presence of antibodies to HIV in serum samples within 5 hours.

December 1999

  • A recent survey of several hundred homosexual men in West Hollywood reported in AIDS Alert finds that attitudes towards HIV and AIDS are making gay men more at ease with the virus, causing some to return to high-risk sexual situations. One reason for the growing complacency is the advancement in treatment with protease inhibitors.
  • Researchers from the University of California at Los Angeles, the Rand Corp. and 8 other institutions find that one third of HIV-infected patients in the US forgo medical care because of the time or money it costs them. Minorities, women, drug abusers and those in poverty were the most likely to skip treatment and instead work or spend the money for food and shelter.
  • The FDA grants fast track approval to VX-175/GW433908, a prodrug of the protease inhibitor amprenavir.
  • A study reported in AIDS of more than 600 HIV-infected men and women indicates that the women have higher CD4 T cell counts when they develop AIDS and at the time of death compared to men.
  • A report in The New England Journal of Medicine finds that the combination of efavirenz plus zidovudine and lamivudine had better antiretroviral activity and fewer adverse effects than the combination of indinavir, zidovudine and lamivudine.
  • A study from researchers at the University of California at San Francisco suggests that bacterial resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole has increased significantly since 1986, especially among HIV-infected individuals.